雙語可能減少老年癡呆症風險(會第二外語 甄試吃香)雙語可能減少老年癡呆症風險 一項新的研究表示,講雙語能延緩老年癡呆症的發生,可將這種疾病和症狀推遲4至5年。 多倫多Baycrest老年護理中心羅特曼研究所(Toronto』s Rotman Research Institute)的研究人員在一項約100名雙語病人和100名單語病人的研究中發現,講雙語的人出現老年癡呆症狀或被診斷為患老年癡呆疾病比講單語的人晚4至5年。 白力斯(Ellen Bialystok)是約克大學心理學教授,柯瑞克(Fergus Craik)是多倫多羅特曼研究所的高級科學家,費德曼(Morris Freedman)—是Baycrest老年護理中心的神經學專家。他們從早期的大約100名雙語病人和100名單語病人的住院病歷中證實了這些結果。 柯瑞克對星報記者表示,發表在2007年《神經心理學》雜誌上的那項研究發現,講雙語的病人被診斷為老年癡呆症或開始出現症狀比講單語的病人晚大約4年。 柯瑞克稱,目前還不清楚其中的原因,可能與講雙語的人的特有能力有關。研究表明,這樣的人,不管是孩子還是成人,有能力阻膠原蛋白止或抑制不相關的或有干擾的信息,從而專注於相關的信息上。 柯瑞克解釋到,多倫多聖邁克爾醫院(Toronto』s St. Michael』s Hospital)的史韋爾(Tom Schweizer)醫生初步證明,雙語不一定阻止大腦退化,但是它可能提供彌補大腦退化的東西。 柯瑞克稱,在科學界,講雙語被認為與「認知儲備」相關。可能就像老人填寫縱橫字謎遊戲或數獨遊戲能保持積極的認知一樣。講雙語能保持人的智力水平。 柯瑞克表示,提供認知儲備的另外一個因素可能是長期地講一種語言,抑制另一種語言的能力。這種心理活動會引起認知儲備,科學家們認為這可能是因為大腦中的神經元連接增加。通常隨著人變老,連接會減少。 柯瑞克建議,即使在腦萎縮的情況下,各種活動,包括講雙語,也能起到維持神經元連接的作用。 柯瑞克不能肯定晚年學語言是否有助於防止老年癡呆症的發生。他也不確定每天15或20分鐘的健腦鍛練是否與終生講第二種語言的影響一樣。To Stave Off Alzheimer's,Learn a Language?Even late in life, picking up a new tongue 買屋can slow effects of aging, expert says.Talk about the power of words—speaking at least two languages may slow dementia in the aging brain, new research shows.Scientists already knew that bilingual young adults and children perform better on tasks dictated by the brain's executive control system. Located at the front of the brain, this system is "the basis for your ability to think in complex ways, control attention, and do everything we think of as uniquely human thought," said Ellen Bialystok, a psychologist at York University in Toronto, Canada.Now studies are revealing that advantages of bilingualism persist into old age, even as the brain's sharpness naturally declines, Bialystok said Friday at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington , D.C.(See "Cell Phone Use May Fight 買房子Alzheimer's, Mouse Study Says.")Bilingual Brains Delay Aging EffectsBialystok and colleagues examined 102 longtime bilingual and 109 monolingual Alzheimer's patients who had the same level of mental acuity. About 24 million people have dementia worldwide, with the majority of them suffering from Alzheimer's, according to Sweden 's Karolinska Institutet medical university.The bilingual patients had been diagnosed with the Alzheimer's about four years later than the monolingual patients, on average, according to Bialystok 's most recent study, published in November in the journal Neurology.This suggests bilingualism is "protecting older adults, even as Alzheimer's is beginning to affect cognitive function," Bialystok said. (Take a brain quiz.)Bialystok is also studying physical differences between bilingual and 關鍵字行銷monolingual brains.In a new experiment, she used CT scans to examine brains of monolinguals and bilinguals with dementia. All the subjects were the same age and functioned at the same cognitive level.The physical effects of the disease in the brain were found to be more advanced in the bilinguals' brains, even though their mental ability was roughly the same, Bialystok told National Geographic News.Apparently, the bilinguals' brains are somehow compensating, she said. "Even though the 'machine' is more broken, they can function at the same level as a monolingual with less disease," she said.Not Too Late to Benefit From a New LanguageBenefits of bilingualism can begin in utero, Janet Werker, a psychologist at the University of British Columbia , Canada , told the news briefing.For instance, Werker and colleagues' 西裝外套recent studies show that babies exposed to two languages in utero do not confuse their languages from birth.The mental workout required to keep the languages separate may create an "enhanced perceptual vigilance" that has lifelong benefits, Werker said."What I'd like to suggest is the kind of advantages you've heard about [in aging] can be established from those first days of life, in [babies] having to keep the two languages apart."Granted, people born into bilingualism have it a bit easier."One of the things babies have is the luxury of time—they get the opportunity to really focus on task at hand," Werker said."If we want to learn a second language, [we need to] set time aside to allow that to happen"—and evidence suggests the payoff is worth it.Even if you don’t learn a second language until after middle age, it can still 房屋買賣help stave off dementia, York 's Bialystok said.Being "bilingual is one way to keep your brain active—it's part of the cognitive-reserve approach to brain fitness," Bialystok said.And when it comes to exercising the brain by learning another language, she added, "the more the better—and every little bit helps."Source:To Stave Off Alzheimer's, Learn a Language? 會第二外語 甄試入學吃香(中央社記者林思宇台北23日電)高中生學習第二外語人數近年快速成長,政治大學外語學院表示,學生甄試入學,若具備第二外語專長,則可加分。財團法人語言訓練測驗中心今天也正式推出第二外語能力檢測。語言訓練測驗中心今天舉辦「第二外語能力測驗」記者會,財團法人語言訓練測驗中心主任高天恩、輔仁大學德語系教授張善禮、政治大學外語學院副院長阮若缺、景美高中校長林麗華等出席。張善禮表示,台灣需要夠多會不同語言的人,且學習語言不是從大學開始。在第二外語納入課綱後,全情趣用品國高中生學習第二外語的人數近1年半內成長50%、約1萬5000人。他也指出,如輔大法文等校系,在大學甄選時,擁有第二外語專長者,就可以加分。阮若缺說,政大外語學院喜歡有熱忱的學生,在學生甄選入學時,學生進入第2關(口試)以後,如果擁有第二外語專長,總成績將可加1分。他表示,通常擁有第二外語專長的學生,都很優秀,不需要加分也能考上,加分只是拉大差距而已。語言訓練測驗中心表示,身處國際地球村時代,學習外語成為1項重要課題,英語也不再是唯一的選擇,繼「全民英檢」後,又推出「第二外語能力測驗(基礎級)」,包括日語、法語、德語和西班牙語等測驗。語言訓練測驗中心說,測驗包括聽力、字彙與用法、閱讀3項,都是3選1的選擇題,每項測驗分數範圍為0到40分,3項總分為120分。外文新寵兒 越語出頭天【記者游婉琪台北報導】學習第二外語除了耳熟能詳的日、法、德、西,學者預估,大量湧入的越南新移民將掀起一波「越語風」。未來企業需要具備越語專長的人才,人數逐年增長的新移民子女,也將考驗政面膜府機構在服務人民時的第二外語能力。 越語學程指日可待教育部高中第二外語學科中心主任、輔大德語系教授張善禮表示,增列第二外語能力指標的新課綱上路後,高中選修第二外語課程的學生成長50%。除了成立不久的桃園縣大園國際高中規定全校必須修習30學分的第二外語課程,教育部也預計在101學年度在高雄市、基隆市開設5個第二外語專班。張善禮表示,隨著東南亞國家經濟地位崛起、新移民子女的教育、外籍勞工輔導等因素,教育部預計在原本7班越南語、2班印尼語之外,在100學年新增至少3班的高中東南亞語專班。政大外語學院副院長阮若缺指出,僑社與東南亞國家駐台單位曾多次提議,希望政大能成立越南語學程,為國家培養人才。只要經費到位,阮若缺認為成立越南語學程指日可待。今年3月底,越南教育部邀請張善禮率領大園高中校長、語言訓練測驗中心等代表前往越南河考察,訪問各級學校,為往後的合作奠定基礎。開課消弭文化隔閡張善禮進一步表示,輔大預定4年內成立越南語系,引進越南當地師資,培育為企業、政府與教591育單位服務的人才,避免台越兩國人民因語言文化隔閡,產生不必要的誤會。張善禮舉例,新北市社會局曾經接獲一名台灣籍婆婆趁兒子不在家,強押越南籍媳婦辦理離婚。該名婆婆指控,媳婦偷偷把她好心燉的坐月子雞湯倒掉,故意煮發酸發臭的食物給她吃。事後了解才知道,越南媳婦吃不慣油膩雞湯,用魚露烹調一鍋母國補身體的家鄉料理。被越南人視為美食的魚露,因本身酸味引來婆婆誤解,媳婦有苦說不出。考慮引進越語檢測張善禮表示,語言能力除了透過師資課程培育,檢定更是重要環節。目前語言訓練測驗中心除了推出包含日、法、德、西4種語言的第二外語能力測驗,語測中心主任高天恩表示未來不排除引進越南語檢測,做為學習者檢測自我能力指標及各單位用人標準。第二外語能力測驗包含聽力、字彙與用法、聽力3項,每項滿分40分,總分120分,考題皆為3選1選擇題。語測中心表示,測驗結果分成兩級,總分60分以上且單項不低於13分者為A1級,96分以上則為A2級。為鼓勵學生報考,凡參加第二外語大學預修專班的高中生,成績達辦公室出租測驗A1級,可獲教育部補助半數費用。

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